Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on The socioecnomic characteristcs of freelancers

Andrei Plotnikov


The study analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work activities of freelancers and the self-employed. The study is based on a conducted survey. A total of 1,157 respondents participated in the survey. The sample subjected to statistical analysis is N=469 people. The employed research methods include correlation and one-factor analysis of variance, as well as text analysis. The textual analysis method is used in determining the reasons behind an unwillingness to register as self-employed. Correlation analysis is used in assessing the impact of the pandemic on income and customer demand. Analysis of variance is deployed to compare subsamples of current freelancers and former freelancers. Analogies are drawn between the current findings and those of other researchers. The results of the study indicate that the main advantage of freelance work is the free schedule (83% of the respondents). Another appeal of freelancing is the lack of the need to go to the office (70%), the freedom to choose orders and customers (68%). Among the negative characteristics of freelancing is the instability of income (67%). In view of the freelancers themselves, the COVID-19 pandemic has had no major influence on their work. Specifically, 40% report that COVID-19 has not affected their work in any way.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Agudelo-Suárez, A. A., Vargas-Valencia, M. Y., Vahos-Arias, J., Ariza-Sosa, G., Rojas-Gutiérrez, W. J., & Ronda-Pérez, E. (2020). Precarious employment and health: A qualitative study in Venezuelan immigrant population in Colombia. Journal of Migration and Health, 1.

Andersson, P. (2008). Happiness and health: Well-being among the self-employed. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(1), 213-236.

Ardianti, R., Obschonka, M., & Davidsson, P. (2022). Psychological well-being of hybrid entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 17.

Bouncken, R. B., & Aslam, M. M. (2021). Bringing the design perspective to coworking-spaces: Constitutive entanglement of actors and artifacts. European Management Journal.

Bouncken, R. B., Aslam, M. M., & Qiu, Y. (2021). Coworking spaces: Understanding, using, and managing sociomateriality. Business Horizons, 64(1), 119-130.

Chen, Y., & Liu, C. Y. (2019). Self-employed migrants and their entrepreneurial space in megacities: A Beijing farmers' market. Habitat International, 83, 125-134.

Cowling, M. L., & Wooden, M. (2021). Does solo self-employment serve as a 'stepping stone' to employership?. Labour Economics, 68, 101942.

Danson, M., Galloway, L., & Sherif, M. (2021). From unemployment to self-employment: Can enterprise policy intensify the risks of poverty?. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 75, 102164.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. (2022). How to become self-employed. Retrieved from:

Grashuis, J. (2021). Self-employment duration during the COVID-19 pandemic: A competing risk analysis. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 15, e00241.

Hessels, J., Rietveld, C. A., & van der Zwan, P. (2017). Self-employment and work-related stress: The mediating role of job control and job demand. Journal of Business Venturing, 32(2), 178-196.

Hsu, L. (2013). Work motivation, job burnout, and employment aspiration in hospitality and tourism students—An exploration using the self-determination theory. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 13, 180-189.

Huang, G., Xue, D., Guo, Y., & Wang, C. (2020). Constrained voluntary informalisation: Analysing motivations of self-employed migrant workers in an urban village, Guangzhou. Cities, 105, 102760.

Jafari-Sadeghi, V. (2020). The motivational factors of business venturing: opportunity versus necessity? A gendered perspective on European countries. Journal of Business Research, 113, 279-289.

Koch, M., Park, S., & Zahra, S. A. (2021). Career patterns in self-employment and career success. Journal of Business Venturing, 36(1).

Kong, L. (2011). From precarious labor to precarious economy? Planning for precarity in Singapore's creative economy. City, culture and society, 2(2), 55-64.

Laffranchini, G., Kim, S. H., & Posthuma, R. A. (2018). A metacultural approach to predicting self-employment across the globe. International Business Review, 27(2), 481-500.

Li, Y., Mastrogiacomo, M., Hochguertel, S., & Bloemen, H. (2016). The role of wealth in the start-up decision of new self-employed: Evidence from a pension policy reform. Labour Economics, 41, 280-290.

Litsardopoulos, N., Saridakis, G., & Hand, C. (2021). Does the accumulation of self-employment experience impact life satisfaction?. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 16.

Lo, K. T., Pan, J. N., & Peng, S. S. (2020). The role of gender and its potential channels to affect self-employment in Taiwan. Economic Modelling, 89, 601-610.

Luo, Y., & Chan, R. C. (2021). Gendered digital entrepreneurship in gendered coworking spaces: Evidence from Shenzhen, China. Cities, 119, 103411.

Millán, J. M., Yue, W., & Cowling, M. (2019). Two decades of European self-employment: Is the answer to who becomes self-employed different over time and countries?

Mindes, S. C., & Lewin, P. (2021). Self-employment through the COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis of linked monthly CPS data. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 16.

Norbäck, M., & Styhre, A. (2019). Making it work in free agent work: The coping practices of Swedish freelance journalists. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 35(4). (2022). What is a "professional income tax" [Web source]

Odermatt, R., Powdthavee, N., & Stutzer, A. (2021). Are newly self-employed overly optimistic about their future well-being? Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 95.

Patel, P. C., & Rietveld, C. A. (2020). The impact of financial insecurity on the self-employed's short-term psychological distress: Evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 14.

Plotnikov, A. (2022). "The Impact Of The COVID-19 Pandemic On Freelancers", Mendeley Data, V1.

Pokida, A. N., & Zybunovskaya, N. V. (2020). Regulation of the activities of self-employed citizens. Issues of state and municipal management, (1), 60-85.

Pritadrajati, D. S., Kusuma, A. C., & Saxena, S. C. (2021). Scarred for life: Lasting consequences of unemployment and informal self-employment: An empirical evidence from Indonesia. Economic Analysis and Policy, 70, 206-219.

Reuschke, D., Clifton, N., & Fisher, M. (2021). Coworking in homes–Mitigating the tensions of the freelance economy. Geoforum, 119, 122-132.

Stenard, B. S. (2019). Are transitions to self-employment beneficial?. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 12.

Welters, R., Mitchell, W., & Muysken, J. (2014). Self determination theory and employed job search. Journal of Economic Psychology, 44, 34-44.

Wolfe, M. T., & Patel, P. C. (2021). Everybody hurts: Self-employment, financial concerns, mental distress, and well-being during COVID-19. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 15.


Métricas do artigo

Carregando Métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2022 Revista Gestão & Tecnologia

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição - NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.