Typology as a Theory Building Tool in Management

Seyed Mohammad Arabi, Saleh Rahimi


Classification (in general) and typology (in particular) are processes that run in all aspects of human life. Human beings are daily confronted with multiple and varied data, and in order to accelerate decision-making, categorize amorphous data, organize their environment, and respond to external stimuli based on knowledge of each category. the purpose of classification is ultimately to obtain a typology or taxonomy. Typology alone is not a research method, and in most of the studies reviewed there has been an auxiliary tool alongside formal research methods. The tendency to use quantitative methods as auxiliary methods of typology is surprising, since we have introduced typology as a concept-based method, while most of the methods used to construct those methods are quantitative. This suggests that there is not yet a complete consensus on the typology of construction. Transparency in typology construction methods can lead to greater use of typology.


typology, Classification, Management, Theory Building.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Ahlquist, J. S. & Breunig, C., 2012. Model-based clustering and typologies in the social sciences. Political Analysis, 20(1), pp. 92--112.

Bailey, K. D., 1984. A three-level measurement model. Quality and Quantity, 18(3), pp. 225--245.

Bailey, K. D., 1988. The conceptualization of validity: Current perspectives. Social Science Research, 17(2), pp. 117--136.

Bailey, K. D., 1994. Typologies and taxonomies: an introduction to classification techniques. s.l.:Sage.

Bailey, K. D., 2005. Typology construction, methods and issues. In: Encyclopedia of social measurement. London: Elsevier, pp. 889-898.

Becker, H., 1940. Constructive typology in the social sciences. American sociological review, 5(1), pp. 40-55.

Bensaou, M. & Venkatraman, N., 1995. Configurations of interorganizational relationships: A comparison between US and Japanese automakers. Management science, 41(9), pp. 1471-1492.

Büchel, F. et al., 2016. Building empirical typologies with QCA: Toward a classification of media systems. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(2), pp. 209--232.

Collier, D., 2008. Typologies: Forming concepts and creating categorical variables.

Collier, D., LaPorte, J. & Seawright, J., 2012. Putting typologies to work: Concept formation, measurement, and analytic rigor. Political Research Quarterly, 65(1), pp. 217--232.

Crutzen, N. & Van Caillie, D., 2010. The Origins of Small Business Failure: A Grounded Typology.

Decrop, A. & Snelders, D., 2005. A grounded typology of vacation decision-making. Tourism management, 26(2), pp. 121--132.

Delbridge, R. & Fiss, P., 2013. Styles of theorizing and the social organization of knowledge. Academy of Management Review, pp. amr--2013.

Dess, G. G., Newport, S. & Rasheed, A. M., 1993. Configuration research in strategic management: Key issues and suggestions. Journal of Management, 19(4), pp. 775--795.

Doty, D. H. & Glick, W. H., 1994. Typologies as a Unique Form of Theory Building: Toward Improved Understanding and Modeling. The Academy of Management Review, apr, 19(2), pp. 230--251.

Elman, C., 2005. Explanatory typologies in qualitative studies of international politics. s.l.:Cambridge University Press.

Eppler, M. J., Hoffmann, F. & Pfister, R., 2011. Rigor and relevance in management typologies: Assessing the quality of qualitative classifications. s.l.:mcm institute, University of St. Gallen..

Fiss, P., 2011. Building Better Causal Theories: A Fuzzy Set Approach to Typologies in Organization Research. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), pp. 393--420.

Fleiß, J., 2010. Paul Lazarsfelds typologische Methode und die Grounded Theory. Generierung und Qualität von Typologien. s.l.:Springer.

Gabor, M. R., 2009. Typological analysis as analysis method of marketing data. s.l.:s.n.

Grävingholt, J., Ziaja, S. & Kreibaum, M., 2012. State fragility: towards a multi-dimensional empirical typology. s.l.:s.n.

Hambrick, D. C., 1984. Taxonomic approaches to studying strategy: some conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Management, 10(1), pp. 27-41.

Jackson, P., 2005. How do we describe coaching? An exploratory development of a typology of coaching based on the accounts of UK-based practitioners. s.l.:s.n.

Ketchen, D. J. et al., 1997. Organizational configurations and performance: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), pp. 223-240.

Kluge, S., 2000. Empirically Grounded Construction of Types and Typologies in Qualitative Social Research. Qualitative Social Research, 1(1), p. 14.

Lambert, S., 2015. The importance of classification to business model research. s.l.:s.n.

Mamadouh, V. D., 1997. Political culture: a typology grounded on Cultural Theory. GeoJournal, 43(1), pp. 17--25.

Marradi, A., 1990. Classification, typology, taxonomy. s.l.:Springer.

McKelvey, B., 1975. Guidelines for the empirical classification of organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, pp. 509--525.

McKelvey, B., 1978. Organizational systematics: Taxonomic lessons from biology. Management Science, 24(13), pp. 1428--1440.

McKinney, J. C., 1950. The role of constructive typology in scientific sociological analysis. s.l.:JSTOR.

McKinney, J. C., 1969. Typification, typologies, and sociological theory. Social Forces, 48(1), pp. 1-12.

Merlino, A., 2014. From the analysis of argumentation to the generation of typologies: A model of qualitative data analysis. s.l.:The Qualitative Report.

Meyer, A. D., Tsui, A. D. & Hining, R. C., 1993. Configurational approaches to organizational analysis. Academy of Management journal, 36(6), pp. 1175-1195.

Miller, D., 1996. Configurations revisited. Strategic management journal, 17(7), pp. 505-512.

Mitleton-Kelly, E., 2003. Complex systems and evolutionary perspectives on organisations: the application of complexity theory to organisations. s.l.:Elsevier Science Ltd.

Niknazar, P. & Bourgault, M., 2017. Theories for classification vs. classification as theory: Implications of classification and typology for the development of project management theories. s.l.:Elsevier.

Okoli, C. & Schabram, K., 2010. A guide to conducting a systematic literature review of information systems research. Sprouts: Working Papers on InformationSystems.

O'Raghallaigh, P., Sammon, D. & Murphy, C., 2010. Theory-building using Typologies -A Worked Example of Building a Typology of Knowledge Activities for Innovation. In: A. A. Respício, ed. Bridging the Socio-technical Gap in Decision Support Systems. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp. 371-382.

Pawar, B. S., 2009. Theory building for hypothesis specification in organizational studies. s.l.:SAGE Publications India.

Read, D. W. & Russell, G., 1996. A method for taxonomic typology construction and an example: Utilized flakes. s.l.:Cambridge University Press.

Reiche, S., Bird, A. & Mendenhall, M. E., 2017. Contextualizing leadership: A typology of global leadership roles. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(5), pp. 552-572.

Rich, P., 1992. The organizational taxonomy: Definition and design. s.l.:Academy of Management.

Sanchez, J. C., 1993. The long and thorny way to an organizational taxonomy. Organization Studies, 14(1), pp. 73--92.

Shepherd, D. A. & Suddaby, R., 2017. Theory building: A review and integration. s.l.:SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA.

Snow, C. C. & Ketchen, D. J., 2014. Typology-driven theorizing: A response to Delbridge and Fiss. s.l.:Academy of Management.

Steinmetz, G., 2012. Sage Publications, Inc. American Sociological Association. Contemporary Sociology, 41(1), pp. 23--26.

Torr, R., 2008. Theoretical Perspectives as Ideal-types: Typologies as Means not Ends. Social Epistemology, 22(2), pp. 145--164.

Ulrich, D. & McKelvey, B., 1990. General organizational classification: An empirical test using the United States and Japanese electronics industries. s.l.:INFORMS.

Breimo, A., 1978. Typology in Social Studies. Pazhouheshkade, 2 (1), pp. 37-42.

Bailey, K., 2012. Typology and Taxonomy: An Introduction to Classification Techniques. Tehran: Office of Cultural Research.

Mofidi Shemirani, S. & Nikghadam, N., 2013. The typology of cities, ports and islands of southern Iran during the Qajar period with development criteria. Bagh Nazar Scientific Research Quarterly, 10 (26), pp. 59-70.

Yavari, V. & Shamsul Sadat, Z., 2013. Designing a Conceptual Model of Organizational Performance Management for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Strategic Management Thought, 7 (1), pp. 79-122.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.20397/2177-6652/2020.v20i0.1783

Métricas do artigo

Carregando Métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2020 Revista Gestão & Tecnologia

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição - NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.